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Textile and Leather


     A textile is a versatile fabric made from an interlocking network of yarns or threads woven from raw fibres (natural or synthetic) into long, twisted lengths. The yarns are woven, knitted, crocheted, knotted, tatted, felted, bonded, or braided together to create textiles. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. Other than that it is used In the household, miscellaneous uses, many traditional crafts and industrial purposes.

Textiles are manufactured from a variety of fabrics, with four major sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute, bamboo), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (polyester, nylon, polyester) (nylon, polyester, acrylic, rayon). The first three are natural compositions. They were substituted by petroleum-based artificial fibres in the 20th century. Textiles come in a variety of strengths and toughness levels, ranging from the finest microfiber made of strands as thin as one denier to the most durable canvas

Textiles are often dyed, and fabrics come in nearly any color. For each pound of fabric, the dyeing procedure also involves several dozen gallons of water. Colored textile designs can be made by weaving different colored fibers together, applying colored stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), avoid dyeing techniques, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the others (tie-dyeing), drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing between those (batik), or using various printing methods on finished fabric.Textiles receive a range of chemical treatments before they reach the end-user. For example, Sodium sulphate is used as a "leveling" agent where it reduces the negative charges on fibers. Then, Caustic soda is used in the scouring process, mercerization process, as well as dyeing process. Etc.

  1. In the textile industry, LABSA is used as an mercerising and washing agent. It also can be used as dyeing assistant
  2. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a bleaching agent
  3. Sodium hydrosulphite is commonly used textile industry as a reducing agent as well as a bleaching agent
  4. Formic acid is used in dyeing and dye fixing, setting and retaining colors in fibers.
  5. Soda ash light is used for dyeing and added to ensure proper adhesion of the dyes to the cellulosic fiber
  6. Acetic acid is widely used for textile processing and printing.
  7. Sodium bicarbonate is widely used in the textile industry for dyeing and printing operations

     Leather has established itself as a staple of the fashion industry, from leather jackets to high heels. This fabric is manufactured from animal hides and skins that are durable, high-quality, and wrinkle-resistant. Depending on the type of animal, grade, and treatment, it may have a variety of looks and feels. For more than 7,000 years, leather has been used to make a variety of products, it is still a popular textile today.

Leather is manufactured by tanning and treating a raw animal hide, also known as rawhide that makes the leather durable and sustainable. The tanning agents help balance the proteins in the skin, allowing it to be used in a variety of ways. Raw leather can become hard and dry over time, while tanned leather can stay supple and sturdy for an extended period of time. In the leather-making process, various different varieties of animals and tanning processes can be used. Preparation, tanning, and crusting are the three steps in the leather manufacturing process.

  1. First, the hair in leathers needs to be removed from the hide, soaked and bleached to prepare for the tanning process.
  2. Then the leather is tanned. This process involves several chemical tanning agents that can be used.
    1. Formic acid can be used during the pickling process to lower the pH of the hides or skins.
    2. Sodium formate also can be used to assist with the penetration of chromium tanning salts into the hides or skins.
    3. Sodium bicarbonate as a neutralizing agent.
    4. Basic chromium sulphate can be used in the tanning and re-tanning. This process is commonly referred to as chrome tanning
  3. Finally, the leather goes to a crusting process, which softens and dries and gets it ready for its final use, whether it’s going to be dyed or sanded.

There are many uses of leather goods and leather products include Clothing, Shoes, Furniture, Bookbinding.

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